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Welcome to the visualchips wiki.  Please see also [http://visual6502.org the visual6502.org site] which contains the backstory, [http://visual6502.org/links.html useful links], [http://visual6502.org/faq.html a FAQ], and a link to [http://blog.visual6502.org/ the project blog].
Welcome to the visualchips wiki.  Please see also [http://visual6502.org the visual6502.org site] which contains the backstory, [http://visual6502.org/links.html useful links], [http://visual6502.org/faq.html a FAQ], and a link to [http://blog.visual6502.org/ the project blog].
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We're all about reverse-engineering popular chips from the 70's and 80's - initially the 6502 but others too. This wiki is for documenting our findings and recording our sources, and is of course a work in progress.
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We're all about [[The reverse engineering process|reverse-engineering]] popular chips from the 70's and 80's - initially the 6502 but others too. This wiki is for documenting our findings and recording our sources, and is of course a work in progress.
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The [[JssimUserHelp|online help for our JavaScript simulator]] is also here, to help you get the most from that. (Note that it's only a switch-level simulator - our data also supports more accurate models. For most purposes, there's no difference.)
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The [[JssimUserHelp|online help for our JavaScript simulator]] is also here, to help you get the most from that. (Note that it's only a switch-level simulator - our data also supports more accurate models. For most purposes, there's no difference.) For help on reading the layout, interpreting transistor circuits, and more about digital design, please see the [http://wiki.nesdev.com/w/index.php/Visual_circuit_tutorial Visual Circuit Tutorial] over at NESdev.
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To navigate this wiki, please see
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* the [[Special:AllPages|Full index]]
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* [[Special:RecentChanges|Recent changes]]
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* [[Special:PopularPages|Popular pages]]
= Projects and status =
= Projects and status =
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See also the [http://visual6502.org/links.html links] and [http://visual6502.org/donate_hw.html status page] on our [http://visual6502.org main website].
 
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For each chip, we follow these steps (see [http://visual6502.org/downloads.html the PDFs] for details):
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Here's the state of play of the chips we're most actively working on. (See also the [[Special:AllPages|wiki index]] for exploration.)
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* get a chip, or more than one, which we can depackage
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* depackage it
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* [[Motorola 6800]] CPU: Breaking news! The [http://visual6502.org/JSSim/expert-6800.html Visual 6800 JavaScript simulator is now live]. See [[Motorola 6800]] for notes on the implementation of this chip, and the relationship to 6502.
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* take many photographs through a microscope of the metal layer
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* stitch into a single large image, correcting for distortions and overlaps
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* [[MOS 6502]] CPU: Our flagship project: we have several pages of findings and many pointers to other resources. We started from [[Photos of MOS 6502D|photos]] and now have a full transistor level netlist with transistor sizes, and of course [http://visual6502.org/JSSim/expert.html?nosim=t&label=PLA,100,1169,2328,8393,934&label=Datapath,100,2143,8820,7676,5689&label=Control,100,3333,4083 our in-browser simulator].
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* capture the polygons - at least for metal, usually also for contact cuts - into a data file
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* usually, deprocess the chip to expose the lower silicon layers
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* Atari 10444D TIA (Television Interface Adaptor): fully extracted and simulated, no data yet published.
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* photograph, stitch and capture
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** [http://visual6502.org/images/pages/Atari_10444D_TIA.html Pictures and story] on our main site.
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* convert the data files into a description we can simulate
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* investigate the behaviour of the chip by simulation
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* Atari ANTIC: layout is in the process of polygon capture or netlist extraction.<br>Primary data not yet published, but see [http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/172580-antic-decap-and-reverse-engineering/ these] [http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/136706-internal-antic-and-gtia-schematics/ threads].
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* investigate the layout and logic design
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* write up our results on this wiki
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== MOS 6502 family ==
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* [[Z8400|Zilog Z80 CPU]]: We have photographs of the metal layer, and have started capturing the polygons.  No public information yet.
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We have photographs of the metal and lower layers, the polygons captured, the circuit extracted and we have published [http://visual6502.org/JSSim a javascript simulator]There is an [https://github.com/pmonta/FPGA-netlist-tools FPGA project] to implement the simulation in hardware. We have (as yet) unpublished simulators in python and C.
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See the [[#6502 additional information|additional information]] further down this page
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* [[Motorola 68000]]: We have [http://visual6502.org/images/pages/Motorola_68000.html photographs] of the metal layer, and have started capturing the polygons.<br>The project page contains die photo and shows areas being captured. This chip will need further deprocessing and photography for the lower layers.
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== Zilog Z80 ==
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* [[RCA 1802E]] space-faring radiation-hard CPU: [http://visual6502.org/images/pages/RCA_1802.html pictures and story] on our main site.
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We have photographs of the metal layer, and have started capturing the polygons. No public information yet.
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== Atari support chips ==
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* MOS 6522 VIA: [http://visual6502.org/images/pages/MOS_6522.html pictures and story] on our main site.
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* TIA (television interface adaptor) fully extracted and simulated, no data yet published.
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* ANTIC layout is in the process of polygon capture or netlist extraction. Primary data not yet published, but see [http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/172580-antic-decap-and-reverse-engineering/ these] [http://www.atariage.com/forums/topic/136706-internal-antic-and-gtia-schematics/ threads].
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== Motorola 68000 ==
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* Nintendo 3193A support chip [http://visual6502.org/images/pages/Nintendo_3193A.html pictures and story] on our main site.
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We have photographs of the metal layer, and have started capturing the polygons.
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* [[Motorola 68000|68000 project page]] containing die photo and showing areas being captured
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This chip will need further deprocessing and photography for the lower layers.
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== Ferranti ULA family ==
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* Commodore 8580 SID: [http://visual6502.org/images/pages/Commodore_8580_SID.html pictures and story] on our main site.
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Ferranti ULAs were used in Acorn's BBC and Electron computers, and Sinclair's ZX81 and Spectrum.
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** Also being [http://oms.wmhost.com/misc/ analysed] [http://oms.wmhost.com/misc/IMPORTANT!.htm elsewhere]
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See [http://www.zxdesign.info/book/ Chris Smith's excellent book] for ULA background and lots of detail about the Spectrum ULA
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* Sinclair Spectrum ULA: photographed, circuit manually captured, original sources not presently public.<br>See [http://www.zxdesign.info/book/ Chris Smith's excellent book] for ULA background and lots of detail about the Spectrum ULA
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* Spectrum ULA: photographed, circuit manually captured, original sources not presently public
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* Acorn Electron ULA: photographed and stitched, nothing online yet
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* Electron ULA: photographed and stitched, nothing online yet
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* Tube ULA: we have a 'spare' chip, yet to be decapsulated
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= 6502 additional information =
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* Acorn Tube ULA: we have a 'spare' chip, decapsulated and ready for microphotography
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== Primary Sources ==
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= More chips =
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* [http://visual6502.org/images/6502/index.html Photos of a MOS 6502D]
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* [[Atari's 6507 Schematics]]
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* [[Photos of R6502]]
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== Secondary Sources ==
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We have a number of other chips, including some generous donations, all in the queue to be reverse engineered:
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* [[Hanson's Block Diagram]]
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* [[Chips in our collection]] tabulates the chips, indicates how far we've got with each, and links to images as appropriate.
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* [[Balazs' schematic and documents]]
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* [[Other Chip Image Sites]] contains links to other similar projects. See also [https://siliconpr0n.org/archive/doku.php?id=digitized John McMaster's list].
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* Original high-resolution stitches, as well as the original chip photos, can be found on our [http://uxul.org/~noname/visual6502/ stitch repository].
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== Previous Analysis ==
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If you have other historic chips, we're interested in donations! Please also see the [http://visual6502.org/donate_hw.html donations status page] on our [http://visual6502.org main website].
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* [http://impulzus.sch.bme.hu/6502/letolt.php3 Beregnyei Balazs: 6502 Reverse Engineering] ([http://www.downloads.reactivemicro.com/Public/Electronics/Reverse%20Engineering/ translation])
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* [http://anyplatform.net/media/guides/cpus/65xx%20Processor%20Data.txt Mark Ormston: 65xx Processor Data (version 0.2b)]
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* [http://www.textfiles.com/apple/6502.bugs.txt Ivo van Poorten: 6502 Bugs List]
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* [http://www.llx.com/~nparker/a2/opcodes.html Neil Parker: The 6502/65C02/65C816 Instruction Set Decoded]
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* [http://www.oxyron.de/html/opcodes02.html Graham: 6502/6510/8500/8502 Opcode matrix]
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* [http://members.chello.nl/taf.offenga/illopc31.txt Freddy Offenga: 6502 Undocumented Opcodes]
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* [http://www.zimmers.net/anonftp/pub/cbm/documents/chipdata/6502-NMOS.extra.opcodes Adam Vardy: Extra Instructions Of The 65XX Series CPU]
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== Our Analysis ==
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= Contributing to this wiki =
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* collected [[6502Observations|observations]] of 6502 layout and behaviour.
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Please see our [[WikiContributionPolicy|policy page]] before making contributions
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* [[6507 Decode ROM]] (note that this describes the Atari 6507, not exactly the same as the NMOS 6502 used in the [http://visual6502.org/JSSim visual6502 simulator]
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* [[6502 all 256 Opcodes|all 256 6502 opcodes]] including illegals and their actions
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* [[6502 Stack Register High Bits|Stack Register]]
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Latest revision as of 05:44, 8 September 2015

Welcome to the visualchips wiki. Please see also the visual6502.org site which contains the backstory, useful links, a FAQ, and a link to the project blog.

We're all about reverse-engineering popular chips from the 70's and 80's - initially the 6502 but others too. This wiki is for documenting our findings and recording our sources, and is of course a work in progress.

The online help for our JavaScript simulator is also here, to help you get the most from that. (Note that it's only a switch-level simulator - our data also supports more accurate models. For most purposes, there's no difference.) For help on reading the layout, interpreting transistor circuits, and more about digital design, please see the Visual Circuit Tutorial over at NESdev.


To navigate this wiki, please see

Projects and status

Here's the state of play of the chips we're most actively working on. (See also the wiki index for exploration.)

  • MOS 6502 CPU: Our flagship project: we have several pages of findings and many pointers to other resources. We started from photos and now have a full transistor level netlist with transistor sizes, and of course our in-browser simulator.
  • Atari 10444D TIA (Television Interface Adaptor): fully extracted and simulated, no data yet published.
  • Atari ANTIC: layout is in the process of polygon capture or netlist extraction.
    Primary data not yet published, but see these threads.
  • Zilog Z80 CPU: We have photographs of the metal layer, and have started capturing the polygons. No public information yet.
  • Motorola 68000: We have photographs of the metal layer, and have started capturing the polygons.
    The project page contains die photo and shows areas being captured. This chip will need further deprocessing and photography for the lower layers.
  • Sinclair Spectrum ULA: photographed, circuit manually captured, original sources not presently public.
    See Chris Smith's excellent book for ULA background and lots of detail about the Spectrum ULA
  • Acorn Electron ULA: photographed and stitched, nothing online yet
  • Acorn Tube ULA: we have a 'spare' chip, decapsulated and ready for microphotography

More chips

We have a number of other chips, including some generous donations, all in the queue to be reverse engineered:

If you have other historic chips, we're interested in donations! Please also see the donations status page on our main website.

Contributing to this wiki

Please see our policy page before making contributions

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